Currently, however, most of the hydrogen that is produced is powered by fossil fuels – green hydrogen is not currently cost-competitive in comparison. However, the cost of green hydrogen production is forecast to reduce significantly as production is scaled up.
In Europe, impetus has been given to the green hydrogen sector by the European Green Deal, an EU drive towards a more sustainable economy and towards achieving 'net zero' emissions by 2050, in line with the commitments made by signatories to the Paris Agreement on climate change in 2015. The hydrogen strategy for a climate-neutral Europe, published by the European Commission in July 2020, is a major strand of the broader European Green Deal agenda.
The strategy is a roadmap with an ultimate objective of making green hydrogen competitive compared to fossil fuels through the creation of a favourable regulatory framework. The strategy is comprised of three phases – the first of which aims to increase the production of green hydrogen to 1 million tonnes, install at least 6 GW of green hydrogen electrolysers, and decarbonise existing hydrogen production, by 2024.
Phase two envisages green hydrogen becoming "an intrinsic part of an integrated energy system", with the aim of producing up to 10 million tonnes of renewable hydrogen, and installing at least 40 GW of green hydrogen electrolysers, by 2030.
The Commission's plan is for green hydrogen technologies to be "deployed at large scale to reach all hard-to-decarbonise sectors [such as aviation and shipping] where other alternatives might not be feasible or have higher costs" between 2030 and 2050.
A revised state aid framework; possible new incentives under the EU's Emissions Trading Scheme; driving demand by potentially introducing quotas for green hydrogen; a new certification scheme for hydrogen technologies; improving access to energy infrastructure for connecting supply of and demand for hydrogen – these are among the measures being considered by the Commission in pursuit of its strategy.
Action to grow the hydrogen market is already being taken by some countries in isolation and in partnership – the plans Australia and Germany have to explore a new hydrogen supply chain between the two countries is a prime example, while the UK government's recent energy white paper detailed plans to put green hydrogen at the heart of a more decarbonised energy system in the country. In France, green hydrogen has been expressly provided for in energy programs focused on the incorporation of decarbonised hydrogen in industry and the development of a clean mobility strategy. Pilot transport sector projects have been announced in the UAE and Saudi Arabia too with the market for hydrogen-powered vehicles tipped to grow in the coming years.
Hydrogen is an explosive and flammable gas and so its production, storage and transport is subject to strict regulatory requirements.
In France, for example, hydrogen is subject to the so-called ICPE regulation, which applies to classified installations for the protection of environment. There is an authorisation process for producing hydrogen, which entails preparing environmental impact and hazard studies for assessment, as well as demonstrating the project owner's technical and financial capacities. A further declaration or authorisation process applies, depending on the quantity of hydrogen present, in respect of its storage and use.
Further stringent requirements apply under the EU SEVESO III regulation. In the case of highly dangerous installations, there is a need to have a technological risk prevention plan and a special intervention plan, which will cover in particular emergency management measures, incident control and procedures to protect public health and the environment.
Further legal frameworks are applicable to the transport of hydrogen, most notably the European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR).
A number of international standards are also relevant to hydrogen production, storage, transport, hydrogen-powered equipment and the safety of hydrogen systems.
Engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contracts for hydrogen projects
A complex contractual framework exists in typical hydrogen projects. Often this framework will include a shareholders agreement, especially with financial investors, as well as a financial agreement and a possible government grant. In a hydrogen project a consulting agreement for the design and technical aspects is also common.